2008年10月17日星期五

首届欧洲藏人大会在瑞士召开






尊者达赖喇嘛致函首届欧洲藏人大会

西藏之页10月11日报导:10月11日,在欧洲的流亡藏人在瑞士巴塞尔召开首届欧洲藏人大会,达赖喇嘛向大会致函问候。全文如下:

移居欧洲藏人各团体代表在瑞士巴塞尔组织召开大会,这是值得欣慰的事。

在欧洲居住的全体藏人,特别其中大部分是60年代移居瑞士,不仅在所居国努力适应各种不同的社会体制生存了下来,而且,为了继承和保护西藏人的文化特质努力克服了各种困难。我认为,受佛教影响根深蒂固的西藏文化,从知识和哲学观点等方面具有独特的价值。因此,具备对全人类创造利益的巨大能力。事实上,在各国出生和成长的新一代西藏人踏着前辈们的足迹,在流亡的情况下不仅完整的继承和保护了优良的西藏文化。而且,向世界人民介绍和宣传西藏问题等方面取得了很好的成果,这值得自豪。因此,我借此大会向你们表示问候!并呼吁在继承、保护西藏文化和介绍、宣传西藏问题上能更上一层楼。

由人民直选的流亡藏人政治领袖首席噶伦桑东仁波切将会出席大会,届时他会详细介绍和说明当今我们非常关注的问题。

祈愿大会各项议程顺利圆满!

达赖喇嘛

2008年10月3日
.........................................................

首届欧洲藏人大会通过决议要求欧盟调查西藏真相

【挪威西藏之声10月13日报导】上周六(11日)和昨天(12日)在瑞士巴塞尔城市召开的第一届欧洲藏人联合大会已圆满闭幕。大会最后通过三项决议案,要求欧洲联盟派遣调查团前往西藏展开实地调查。

挪威西藏协会会长琼达•科伦向本台表示,第一届欧洲藏人联合大会于昨天晚上圆满结束,在这次为期两天的大会上与会者分成多个小组,就西藏问题展开讨论,并制定 3项决议案和19项内部议题。

其中3项决议案分别是,要求中国政府停止批评和诬蔑西藏政教领袖达赖喇嘛;要求欧洲联盟派遣调查团前往西藏了解真实状况;以及呼吁欧洲联盟继续维持对中国的武器禁运。

19项内部议题包括,保护和继承西藏语言文化,在各自家庭中使用藏语言,以及欧洲各国西藏委员会在各自所在地举行文艺表演,向当地民众宣传和介绍西藏独特的语言文化和宗教习俗。

琼达•科伦表示,大会还决定向中共国家主席胡锦涛致公开信,要求中共政府立即停止无端指责和批评西藏政教领袖达赖喇嘛,停止伤害西藏人民的感情。


召开这次大会主要是把分散在欧洲各国的流亡藏人力量进一步凝聚在一起,共同为西藏问题的解决做出努力,因此,在这次大会上产生新的欧洲藏人联盟组织理事会成员,同时还决定第二届欧洲藏人联合大会将于2010年在法国、比利时或西班牙召开。

据了解,西藏政教领袖达赖喇嘛也向首届欧洲藏人联合大会致函对所有居住在欧洲各国的藏人表示慰问,并呼吁大家继续为发扬西藏传统文化与宗教以及争取西藏自由付出更大的努力。



13 条评论:

  1. http://www.international.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=2732

    How Repressive Is the Chinese Government in Tibet?

    Scholar tells skeptical audience that claims by Tibetan exiles of Chinese cultural discrimination are greatly exaggerated.

    By Leslie Evans

    Barry Sautman, Associate Professor of Social Science at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, spoke at UCLA December 2 to defend the thesis that claims of cultural repression against Tibetans by the Han Chinese are greatly exaggerated by Tibetan exiles in India and by the liberal Western press. His talk was met with some skepticism from discussant Nancy Levine (Anthropology, UCLA) and by some members of the audience, but he presented a wide range of data to support his view. The talk was sponsored by the Center for Chinese Studies.


    Sautman chose to focus his presentation on a refutation of the claims made by some Tibetan exiles that the Chinese are pursuing a policy of "cultural genocide" in Tibet. Levine suggested that this was a bit of a straw man and that most exiles are concerned more with issues of lagging development. On specific issues Sautman made the following case.

    Rival Views on Tibetan Sovereignty

    The Chinese government and the Tibetan exiles in India, led by the Dalai Lama, have diametrically opposed views of the rights of Tibetans to independence. The Chinese claim that Tibet was a Chinese province for eight centuries and that the Dalai Lama has forfeited his spiritual and temporal leadership because he is a separatist. The Tibetans in exile call Tibet a colony of China. This view, Sautman said, "Is widely accepted in the West. It has resonance in the West in the post-Holocaust period." In contrast, he argued, "The problems of Tibetans are typical of minorities in the era of large modern states."

    It is true, he said, that there have been significant inroads of Chinese culture into Tibet since the forcible takeover in 1959, but there has been an even greater influx of Western culture. "By not defining cultural genocide the Tibetan exiles can label any changes from 1959 as cultural genocide, although many of these changes could be expected to have occurred without the issue of cultural genocide arising."

    The most common specific charges raised by Tibetan exiles, Sautman said, "point to Han immigration plus restrictive birth policies. In fact the state sponsored transfer to Tibet is on a small scale. From 1994 to 2001 the PRC organized only a few thousand people to go to Tibet as cadres. Most serve only 3 years and then return to China. Those who move on their own to the Tibet Autonomous Region usually return to China in a few years. They come for a while, find the cities of Tibet too expensive, and then return to China. Some of the 72,000 Chinese who maintain their hukou [household registration] in Tibet don't really live there. Pensions are higher if your household is registered in Tibet. These facts are supported by Australian and U.S. demographers. Claims of ethnic swamping in Tibet are misleading."

    Chinese Policies on Tibetan Birth Rates

    The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), Soutman said, "encourages Tibetans to limit their families to 3 children. The local government townships have the power to impose small fines for more than 3 children. One study showed that in 3 of 4 studied townships no fine was imposed on a birth issue and only very small fines in the fourth. Tibetan families in Tibet average 3.8 children, larger than Tibetan families in India. Han families with more than one child face much harsher penalties. In 1990 Tibetans were 95% of the Tibetan population. There has been no dramatic change in the region's ethnic balance."

    Exiles also claim that birth policies are repressive against Tibetans in regions of China proper where they are significant minorities, such as in Qinghai and Gansu. "This is not sustained by available statistics," Sautman insisted. "The percent of Tibetans in Qinghai has shown no significant change from 1950 to 2000. Restriction on family size is harsher for the majority than for the minority and the effects have not changed the percent of Tibetans in the Qinghai population. This is hardly cultural genocide."

    Émigrés complain of restrictions on the minimum age of monks and nuns and on affiliation with the Dalai Lama. Sautman countered by saying that China claims there are more than 2,000 Tibetan Buddhist monasteries. "I have visited many of these and they are all active religious communities. The Chinese government in the remote far west actually encourages people to join monasteries to have people to take care of ethnic relics."

    Sautman said that there is now 1 monk or nun for every 35 Tibetans, "the highest of any Buddhist country in the world, and much higher than the relation of ministers and priests to parishioners in any Christian country in the world, where the ratio is often 1 to 1,000. Chinese law says you have to be 18 to become a monk, but in practice there are often much younger monks."

    Status of the Tibetan Language

    Sautman also sought to rebut charges by Tibetan exiles that the Tibetan language is devalued and being replaced by Chinese. "92-94% of ethnic Tibetans speak Tibetan. The only exception is places in Qinghai and Amdo where the Tibetan population is very small compared with the broader population. Instruction in primary school is pretty universally in Tibetan. Chinese is bilingual from secondary school onward. All middle schools in the TAR also teach Tibetan. In Lhasa there are about equal time given to Chinese, Tibetan, and English." In contrast, Soutman said, "Tibetan exile leaders in India used English as the sole language until 1994 and only became bilingual in 1994. Schools in Tibet promote the Tibetan language more than Indian schools do in ethnic Tibetan areas--in Ladakh, India, instruction is in Urdu, with a high dropout rate from Tibetans, but India is never accused of cultural genocide against Tibetans."

    There is an upsurge of the performing arts, poetry and painting by Tibetans, Sautman told the audience. "The exile leaders claim that the Chinese officials suppress Tibetan themes. In exile the Tibetan arts often introduce non-Tibetan themes, but there is no accusation of cultural genocide. Vices such as prostitution are not unique to Tibet under Chinese rule but are common throughout Buddhist lands. There are few aspects of Chinese culture in Tibet, but there are many aspects of Western culture, such as jeans, disco music, etc. The exile Tibetans do not condemn the growth of Western influence at the expense of traditional Tibetan culture."

    A Discussant Demurs

    Discussant Nancy Levine said it was her opinion that cultural genocide was not a central focus of exile literature. "The discussion seems to focus on social and economic marginalization. The term is problematic." She conceded that Sautman's paper contained "some strong evidence," but said he cited dubious sources as well.

    "You criticize the government in exile's position that a fifth of the population was eliminated by purges from the 1959 and 1979. It appears that there was a powerful impact of the Great Leap Forward. Some areas such as the Tibetan areas of Sichuan lost as much as half of their Tibetan population during the Great Leap Forward. There were serious population losses. It should not be simply denied. It is true that the Tibetan population since the 1960s has been growing rapidly and that birth control has been fairly loose for Tibetans. The basis for fines varies sharply. The one study you site at Lhasa cannot be generalized."

    On Tibetan Buddhism, she said, "There were 10,000 monks in 1959, and while there are many today, it is a radical decline from then, plus a radical discontinuity in religious training of monks. In 2000 Kirti [Tibetan Buddhist monastery in Sichuan province] was dissolved, with 2,000 monks. The practice of Buddhism is seriously constrained. Every major leader of Tibetan Buddhism except the Panchen Lama is in exile today, not only the Dalai Lama."

    Levine scored Sautman for relying too much on Chinese journalistic sources. "You use a Xinhua news source to claim that there are 300 more Tibetan religious institutions today than in 1959. I have been misquoted by Xinhua and this is not a reliable figure. You do have some strong data, but you should distinguish it better from some more questionable sources that you also use."

    Barry Sautman responded on several fronts. On claimed declines in Tibetan population, he cited articles in the Columbia Journal of Asian Law and by an Australian Chinese demographer in Asian Ethnicity in 2000. "What I think these articles show is that there is no evidence of significant population losses over the whole period from the 1950s to the present. There are some losses during he Great Leap Forward but these were less in Tibetan areas than in other parts of China. Where these were serious were in Sichuan and Qinghai, but even there not as serious in the Han areas of China. There are no bases at all for the figures used regularly by the exile groups. They use the figure of 1.2 million Tibetans dying from the 1950s to the 1970s, but no source for this is given. As a lawyer I give no credence to statistics for which there is no data, no visible basis."

    Sautman conceded Levine's point that claims of cultural genocide are not prominent in Tibetan exile literature, "But pushing the button of genocide has a bigger impact than pushing the button of underdevelopment." He denied that either the local or national Chinese government discriminates against Tibetans: "My finding is that discrimination is popular, but it comes from Han prejudice. The state in Tibetan areas does not involve itself in acts of discrimination. In part this is because many of the leaders in the ethnic minority areas are from the ethnic minority."

    Center for Chinese Studies

    Date Posted: 12/4/2002

    回复删除
  2. 热烈祝贺《首届欧洲藏人大会》成功召开,这是50年来第一次“欧洲藏人联盟组织理事会”的成立,终于有了全世界藏族人民最需要的组织机构和指导中心,希望你们肩负历史的重任,全体藏族人民的自由愿望,应该制定出有理有纲的治藏政治纲领,有组织、有计划,有步骤,有物力有人力的计划纲领,也有印甘地的顽强斗争精神,犹太人的团结奋斗精神起到带头作用。相信希特勒的下场就是独裁暴君的下场,犹太人的今贪就是藏族人民的明天。希望把“欧洲藏人联盟组织理事会”改为“国际藏人联盟大会”

    回复删除
  3. 哪里有压迫,哪里就有反抗。不在沉默中灭亡,一定在沉默后爆发,哪怕只剩下一个人,都要顽强斗争到底。

    回复删除
  4. 希望有智者尽快将以上英文帖子译文中文,让所有人看看,我们是只会汉文化的老藏民,虽然我们的语言汉化了、我们的服装汉化了,我们的工作只能为汉民服务,但是我们血管里仍然响着藏马的蹄声,心理装着牦牛帐篷,骑着雪山狮子畅游世界。世界就在我们双手,多么豪迈的气魄。多么顽强的民族,我们绝不会倒下,哪怕只剩下一个人,都要顽强斗争到底。

    回复删除
  5. 我们绝不会倒下,哪怕只剩下一个人,都要顽强斗争到底
    -------------------------
    扯淡,楼上的太搞笑了吧,怎么了藏人要完蛋了还是要咋地了???
    这种典型类似神经病的共产党式斗争思维千万要不得!!!

    回复删除
  6. good go,go we will succeed thanks.

    回复删除
  7. “第二届欧洲藏人联合大会将于2010年在法国、比利时或西班牙召开。”
    等于没有决定。

    回复删除
  8. 欧洲藏人团体不是第一次召开这样的会议,已经有好几次了。可能召集人不同而已的原因吧?

    回复删除
  9. 唯色啦:
    希望發表一些境内青壯年知識分子對西藏局勢的看法,而不是老共平旺們的老調重彈,雖然達蘭薩拉對他們有些贊許,但這不過是人云亦云的亂像而已。這些人失去政治舞臺加上臨終前交待歷史的自慚形穢。
    我們不可以活在抱怨與哀號聲中,面對當天的危機要有新的思維與長遠的策略。
    安多

    回复删除
  10. "日本的文化是“诚”的文化;西方的文化是“爱”的文化;而中国人的文化是“骗”的文化。村骗乡,乡骗县,一骗骗到国务院。东海一枭你要明白,一个人变得无耻无义,腐败成性,不是要等到他当官以后。其实,无耻无义的基因,就溶化在他的的血液里,浸透在他的骨髓里。特别是对于那些到今天还宣扬所谓中国传统文化的人,哪个不是以“义”就是权宜之计为借口,在日常生活里欺骗成性、说谎成性!无耻无义的结果,就是造就一个满口仁义道德,一肚子男盗女娼的痞子国度。"--刘杰

    回复删除
  11. 唯色啦:
    您现在还能回藏人文化网吗???

    回复删除
  12. 回楼上,我经常去藏博看文章,偶尔也留言,但都是化名,不可能再在那里开博了,因为其下场,就跟西藏新疆的书记们说的那样,“露头便打,不露头也要打,而且要追着打……”,哈,俺怕怕,俺逃也……!

    回复删除